Friday, November 29, 2019
1. Identify at least five organ systems in this region of the arm that the surgeon would have marked for reattachment. Circulatory, skeletal, lymphatic, nervous, integumentary, and muscular 2. List the names of the specific structures that had to be reattached. Specific Bone: Humerus ; Specific Muscles: Biceps brachii, brachialis, triceps ; Specific nerves: Median nerve, ulnar nerve, radial nerve, musculocutaneous nerve, antebrachial cutaneous nerves ; Specific Blood Vessels: Brachial artery, superior and inferior collateral artery, profunda brachii artery and veins, cephalic vein, basilic vein, and other venous tributaries 3. What organ system was most likely not reattached? Explain. Lymphatic because the vessels are very small and hard to find. 4. Why was a clean bite so important? Ragged edges would make ends of blood vessels and nerves difficult to identify and put together, while clean edges would facilitate identification and reattachment. 5. Why was the bone shortened? To cut off the damaged area and to avoid stretching severed blood vessels and nerves. We will write a custom essay sample on Anatomy Essay or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page 6. Identify the movements associated with the arm, forearm, wrist, and fingers. Flexion, extension, abduction, adduction, grasping, and mobility of individual fingers. 7. Explain how the movements of the reattached arm might be altered after the reattachment. Decreased, because not all nerve fibers are reconnected or can regenerate 8. Define collateral circulation and identify the regions of collateral circulation that would be found in the upper extremity. Collateral circulation is defined as multiple circulation paths supplying a particular area. The regions of collateral circulation in the upper extremity are around the scapula, the head of the humerus, the elbow, wrist, and hand. 9. Identify the specific vessels that provide the collateral circulation to the elbow. Specific Vessels are branches of the profunda brachii artery, inferior ulnar collateral artery, radial recurrent artery, and anterior and posterior ulnar recurrent arteries. 10. Identify specific types of activities that might cause Jim problems after recovery. Grasping and moving individual fingers. 11. Why would full use of his arm be unlikely? Jim would not likely regain full use of his forearm and hand because not all of the nerve fibers would regenerate. 12. Assume the role of the surgeons as they explain the procedure to JimÃ¢â¬â¢s parents. Write a one- to two-paragraph explanation about the surgery, paying particular attention to what you would say about regaining use of his arm, forearm, and hand. Ã¢â¬Å"The surgery was a success. We shaved off some of the bone and connected all the muscles and vessels and such back together and implanted a suture into his arm to hold the two pieces of the arm together. Although the surgery was good, it is unlikely that he will ever regain full use of his arm or hand again. Your son is recovery now. We are going to keep him for a while and monitor his vital signs and see how this reattachment treats him. Ã¢â¬ 13. Assume the surgery to reconnect blood vessels was successful and blood flow was re-established immediately throughout the arm. Would the nerves of the arm recover as quickly and completely as the muscles? Explain why or why not. If the surgery were successful, the nerves would not recover as quickly and completely as the muscles because nerves do not grow or regenerate as well. 14. How might this situation have been different if Jim had been 80 instead of 8 years old? An 80-year-old person might have underlying medical conditions that would make reattachment difficult. A person that old might also have more difficulty regenerating nerves and having the brain understand any rewiring.
Monday, November 25, 2019
Evaluation of Amy hecklings movie Clueless essays Evaluation of movie Clueless by Amy Heckling I believe that In any transformation, it is always the more recently composed text that will have a greater appeal. I have followed admirably Jane Austen's example by making a film that, on the surface, seems like another mindless teen flick but is actually a multi-layered social commentary. I took Austen's novel Emma, the story of a spoiled child of the 19th century English leisure class who thinks she knows everything, and turned it into the film Clueless, the story of a spoiled child of the 20th century American leisure class who thinks she knows everything. Not only did my experiment display the universal nature of Jane Austen's work, it also resulted in a charming and what I feel very funny film which will hopefully become a box office success. In my hands, Austen's novel proves itself to be surprisingly adaptable to the contemporary period. Some updating is only minor, photography substitutes for portraiture, convertibles for carriages, parties in the Valley for fancy dress balls. Others are less obvious, Mr. Woodhouse's preoccupation with his digestion and Emma's concerns about his health undergo a contemporary twist in Cher's imposition of a low-cholesterol diet on her father. Even Emma's mother's death receives my own 1990s treatment. Cher's mother died undergoing liposuction a 20th century procedure never contemplated in those times. More significant changes challenge the severity of time boundaries, class differences in the novel are complicated as the film adds racial and sexual diversity to the mix. (The orphaned Harriet Smith becomes a Hispanic transfer student, Frank Churchill is revealed to be gay, and Emma's best friend becomes a rich African American). To gain insight into my main characters thinking, I employ the alternative technique of voice-over for Cher. While written in the third person, the novel is told from Emma's...
Thursday, November 21, 2019
The international transaction for the sale of goods is far too complex to attempt harmonisation of international trade - Essay Example At the harmonization of rules of the contract law, there is the possibility of several specific problems arising, which can be treated separately based on any visible differences about the notion. Therefore, this paper investigates the complexity of the international transaction for the sale of goods in harmonization of the international trade (Whittaker 2011, p. 371). There has been the conviction that the only real method of harmonization of the rule of contract law is possible only in private law in general. This has been evidenced by works of UNIDROIT that saw the emergence of international conventions. One of the conventions was used in Hague conventions, in 1964, on issues of international contracts for the sale of goods while the other was that in Vienna convention in 1980. Hague adopted a solution that comprised of the annex to uniform international sale law that, upon the ratification, was introduced directly into the domestic law of European countries This was regarded to be superior to the one from Vienna Convention. It was superior because the harmonized rules bound the participating states in a similar manner as that for international obligation. The major drawback today is the question on the international convention being the most appropriate avenue for harmonizing the contract law (Bellantuono 2010, p. 115). In my opinion, the complexity and intensity of the modern international commerce have encouraged several developments and other several ways of harmonization of the private law. The Ã¢â¬Ëcontract out is regarded as the most interesting solution for a resolution introduced within the framework. A state may decline such a resolution. However, if the decline is not done within the time specified, the rules of the resolution may be considered as binding and may influence specific contractual clauses, or specific contracts. The model laws harmonize rules of particular contractual transactions of problems
Wednesday, November 20, 2019
Somalia - Essay Example The international community has on many occasions tried to establish a democratic Somali, the most recent being the Transition Federal Government(TFG) that was overrun by the Union of Islamic Courts(UIC) in 2006. Just as in the previous administration, TFG was plagued by intense power struggles among the different factions and clans that eventually undermined its objectives of democratizing the country. Since then, Somali remains a failed state characterized by unstructured rules by Islamic factions and more piracy in the high seas (Samatar, 1991, p9). In order to transform the country from the current state to a democratic country, high sense of patriotism and nationalism among all Somali clans should be established so that they can tolerate each other and respect the rule of law. According to Laitin (1977, pp26-29), establishing a constitution that has the support of the majority people is a fundamental requirement for establishing democracy in a country. Equally important, the con stitution should be enforced by independent and strong institutional framework where rule of the land reigns over personal or specific groups.
Monday, November 18, 2019
Violence against Women and Girls - Essay Example Although some international and regional instruments of law have put in place the necessary measures for the states to use in order to cub, eradicate and even punish violence against young girls and women by demanding that the states ought to take the necessary measures to combat the violence, there has however continued prevalence of these vice. The Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women (CEDAW) indicates that the vice has grown to a global pandemic of alarming proportions which is yet to be addressed with all the appropriate political commitment as well as resources. According to UNIFEM (2010), approximately six out of every ten women in post conflict countries have experienced sexual or physical violence in their lifetime. A study by World Health Organization related to some twenty four thousand women in some ten countries indicates that prevalence of physical and sexual violence by a woman's partner ranged from 15 % in most urban areas of developed countries to a range of 30 - 60 % in most rural areas of post conflict states (UNIFEM, 2010). In most of these states, the violence against young girls and women have had some far reaching aftermath including so much harm to the families and communities affected. It has become a major source of disability or even death for girls and women of 16 up to 44 years of age. A World Bank investigation into some selected risk factors facing women and girls at the indicated age group showed that rape and domestic violence have emerged as more dangerous to the affected ladies than war, malaria, motor vehicle accidents and cancer. There has also been a close association between these kind of violence and HIV and AIFDS with a survey showing that there are some 1,366 women from South African region who have been beaten by the life partners and were more likely to be infected with HIV more than those who were not. Gender-related violence violates human rights as well as hampering of human productivity, reduction of human capital and undermining of economic growth to the affected lives. The US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention report in 2003 indicated that the intimate partner violence costs in the USA alone have been found to exceed US$ 5.8 billion a year with US $ 4.1 billion being budgeted for direct medical as well as services related to health care (UNIFEM, 2010). Young girls at the tender age have unfortunately happened to be majority victims of sexual assault. Other group that has become subject to unwarranted sexual coercion is women who are in position of abject dependence on male power. Rape cases have also been high in post-conflict countries. This has been very much documented in the last few years in countries affected by civil conflicts. Rape in such cases has been employed systematically as a torture instrument or even domination of ethnic groups (Gender Equality, 2009). Although there has been indication of growth of the vice, some efforts by the post conflict nations in addressing the vice need to be put in place in preventing this situation. Some 89 post conflict countries in 2006 have installed some legislation measures targeting prevention of the domestic violence and plans of action. In most of these states, marital rape has become prosecutable
Saturday, November 16, 2019
Should Druthers Forming Limited Be Given The Loan? DRUTHERS FORMING LIMITED Should Druthers Forming Limited be given the loan? Druthers Forming Limited that was founded in 1987 by Mr. Garrett and Norm Sheppard have requested on July 30, 2007 an amount of $350,000 loan from Mr. Brad Mac Dougall, account manager at the Canadian Commercial Bank (CCB). To know whether or not this amount needs to be passed depends on several factors thus for this purpose there are several questions that are needed to be answered before this decision can be made, thus in this report we will find out the answers to Mr. Brads questions. To make any decision we first need to assess the past financial performance using the statement of cash flow and ratio analysis. If we take a look at the cash flow statement 2007 for the first thing that we can notice is the Net Income which for this year was $-12,100. This means that Druthers Forming Limited for that year have made a loss which is not good for any kind of bank that is giving a loan worth $350,000, even so if we take a look at the Net Cash Flow from Operations we can see that even with a loss the company can easily cover it with cash. In terms of Financial Activities the net cash flow is $-15,212 which again means that the company already has long term loan and is already affecting the cash flow in a negative way. If we go further to Investing Activities we can clearly see again that the net cash flow for this as well is $-68,204 which again is impacting the cash flow in a negative way but the cause for this is that they have a lot of money invested in land and construction, which in due course could come in a form of return and thus will boast the cash flow. The net cash flow after calculation is only $45,974 and with an addition of beginning cash the ending cash is only $118,550 but as mentioned before there is a possibility that some of the negative net cash flow could turn to positive cash flow. The cash flow has given us an idea of the situation of the cash in the company but now we need to go even deeper with finding out what affect the company has on its ratios. The first and the most important ratios for any company is the Liquidity Ratios which include Current Ratio, Acid Test/Quick Ratio and Cash Ratio. To begin with lets look at the Current Ratio which for 2007 is 3.14:1 and for any bank this is good as this assures that the company will easily is able to pay the loan but in term of the company itself it may not be a good sign as this means that they have more than 3 times the current asset to their current liability which will for sure affect the companies interests and thus will affect the Income Statement at a future stage. If we look at the Acid Test Ratio which for 2007 is 3.01:1 we can come to the same conclusion as before with the Current Ration that it is really good for a bank to offer loan to this company. As for Cash Ratio for 2007 it is 1.38:1 which is really good for any company to have a ratio above 1 is very good and this means that they are managing their cash well and will for sure help them to get their loans easily as this assures banks that they will have enough funds to pay the loan in the future. Another ratio that will help us to understand the situation is the Total Debt Ratio which is total asset minus total equity upon total asset. For the year 2007 the total asset was $423,504 and total equity is $302,115 which is equal to 28.6%. This is not bad for any company but considering the Banks point of view it would be a lot better if it was higher that 30%. The second question requests us to project two years financial statements which are the Statement of Income and Balance Sheet for the year 2008 and 2009. This has been shown in the tables below: The next question that was presented is to consider the working capital requirements, including performing a sensitivity analysis on the days of accounts receivable, inventory and/or accounts payable. As given in the working capital for the year 2007 is $183,129 which compared to previous years has fallen drastically. This means that the financial health of the company is deteriorating and this will keep on happening until the company improves it working capital. In terms of Accounts Receivable, Inventory and/or Accounts Payable the age period is 157 days, 12 days and 57 days respectively. The best way to calculate this is to use ratios and for this purpose we will first look into the Days Sales in Inventory which is 365 / Inventory Turnover which is given as 12 days. This means that the company will receive their inventory 30.4 times in 365 days which is very good for the companys cash flow and will thus benefit the bank as well. As for Accounts Receivable we need to take a look at the ratio called Days Sales in Receivables which is 365 / Receivables Turnover. This is also given to us as 157 days which means that it will take 2.32 times for the company to cover its accounts receivable and in comparison if we look at Accounts Payable the number of days mentioned is only 57 days to 150 days because 85% of the yearly purchase were made from May to September which means that the accounts are payable 2.63 times. We can clearly see in the earlier mentioned figures that the company receives the payment much slower that the number of times it pays which is not the best choice for any company as every company should try and keep its accounts receivable and payable as equal as they can. For example if Druthers Forming Limited changed their receiving period from 157 days to 120 days this will increase the receivable time period to 3.04 times which is a lot better and on the other hand if they try to increase the payable period to 70 days this will mean that the company will need to pay only 2.1 times which is much closer than to their actual state. To be a lot serious the better option for the company is to try to reduce the receivable period to 60 days and increase their payable period to 90 days this will mean that it will take 6.08 times and 4.05 times for the company to receive and pay respectively. This would be the best situation for the company as this means that they will receive cash a lot sooner that paying it. In terms of Inventory that was discussed previously we could consider that 12 days in 365 days is not bad but what if the inventory turnover is changed to 20 days. In this case the company will be selling its inventory 18.3 times a year which will impact the cash flow and the balance sheet thus we can come to a conclusion that it would be better to try and keep the inventory turnover to 12 days and if possible to try to reduce it a little if possible. Thus we could say that due to the difference in receivables to the payables the working capital will keep on decreasing until some changes are done. The next question that is put in front of us is to determine the loan amount needed, and decide on the type and terms of the loan. For this purpose we will consider that the loan has been given and we take it as $350,000 as the amount that will be given as loan. There are mainly two types of loan these are secured and non-secured loans. Secured loans is when a bank gives a loan based on an asset as a guarantee and non secured asset is when there is no asset taken as a guarantee but instead it is given based on the bank balance. In this case the type of loan that we will consider is secure loan and thus the terms of the loan will be based on that the building purchased will be considered as a guarantee for it. The other terms will be that the repayment period for the loan will not exceed 10 years and the interest on the loan every year shall be 5.8%. In case of failure to pay the bank will be eligible to claim the property. The loan will be distributed equally through the 10 year span and the interest every year would be $20300. The question that we then need to consider next is the analysis the risk associated with the loan using the four Cs of credit. To begin with this we first need to know what are the four Cs of credit which are character, capacity, capital and collateral. Character refers to the financial history of the borrower (Murray(a)); this means that we need to access the financial data of the company. Druthers Forming Limited gets between 30% and 70% of their sales from Sheppard Homes which is basically one of their family businesses. Due to this reason most of the other builders in the market are very reluctant to give the company any business. Most of Druthers suppliers offered them 30 to 60 day credit term and they did the same as well but the problem with this as mentioned before in the earlier section is that they still ended up paying their creditors before the received any cash from the debtors. This also means that the company has always paid their creditors and even if we take a look at the long term debt of the company they have been paying their debts at a consistent pace. Capacity refers to the ability of the business to generate revenues in order to pay back the loan (Murray(b)). As mentioned before the company did make a loss in the year 2007 and the sales of the company has fallen drastically in a span of three years. This is not the only problem they are having as the cash flow is also not doing very well and unless some changes are done they will keep on having bad cash flow. Capital refers to the capital assets of the business such as machinery and equipment, etc. (Murray(c)) If we look at the balance sheet for the year 2007, we can see that the fixed asset consists of only land and construction in progress which is not much compared to what normally the companys fixed assets tend to be. Collateral is the cash and assets a business owner pledges owner pledges to secure a loan (Murray(d)). As mentioned before the company has not much fixed assets and this means that they do not have any asset to give as security for the loan but as we already know that the company needs the money to purchase a building we can consider it as a guarantee for the loan. Now we need to evaluate several options (deny the loan, grant the request or defer the request) available to the lender to determine which option is the best for this decision. As mentioned in the question we need to consider three options the first option is to deny the loan which considering the companies past would be a better choice as the company has made a loss in 2007, in addition they do not have a good cash flow and last but not the least they have no assets to offer as security which is imposible for a bank to give a loan without a security. The second option to grant the request as mentioned would not be wise but there is some hope in terms of this as we could consider the building that will be purchased as security so that in case of any failure to pay, we could consider the building as payment for the loan but by the looks of things the company has never really failed to pay their long term loans and this is a good sign for any bank. The last option to defer the loan and this may actually be the best option as the company does not have enough funds to pay the bank plus they have no security to properly cover the loan. The best thing would be ei ther to wait for another six months to a year to see the status of the companys finance and then the company could put in another request. The last question that was asked to us was as Mac Dougall, to decide whether to lend funds and to provide supporting rationale for this decision. After giving a lot of thinking to this it seems that it would be better that instead of actually giving the whole amount we can come to an agreement that the bank will give a loan of $200,000 for the first year with an interest of 5.8% per year which is $11,600 per year for a span of 10 years and in case the situation of the company is better after six months or a year, we could offer another $150,000 with the same conditions as above but the company will need to give 60% of the ownership of the building to the bank as security for this loan incase of failure to pay. This may not be the best option for Druthers Forming Limited but considering their week cash flow and balance sheet it would be difficult for any bank to offer the total amount of loan without being fully sure that the company can pay the loan and interest. Bibliography Murray, J. (n.d.). The 4 Cs of Credit for Business Loan. Retrieved August 8, 2010, from About.com: http://biztaxlaw.about.com/od/financingyourstartup/a/4csofcredit.htm Murray, J. (n.d.). The 4 Cs of Credit for Business Loan. Retrieved August 8, 2010, from About.com: http://biztaxlaw.about.com/od/financingyourstartup/a/4csofcredit.htm Murray, J. (n.d.). The 4 Cs of Credit for Business Loans. Retrieved August 8, 2010, from About.com: http://biztaxlaw.about.com/od/financingyourstartup/a/4csofcredit.htm Murray, J. (n.d.). The 4 Cs of Credit for Business Loans . Retrieved August 8, 2010, from About.com: http://biztaxlaw.about.com/od/financingyourstartup/a/4csofcredit.htm
Wednesday, November 13, 2019
Pick up any newspaper or point your web browser to any major or minor news publication and questions like these will be all over them. A lot of Americans feel that the War on Terror and our presence in Iraq has lasted too long. Are they correct? Should we pull out and call it quits? Should we have another repeat of the Vietnam War? Believe it or not, that's how a lot of people view this war, as another Vietnam. They feel that we are out there, putting the American nose into something that shouldn't be picked. But they are not entirely true. [I] feel that the war in Iraq was a justifiable one and that it was something that was needed. Saddam Hussein was a dictator who ruled with an iron fist and if someone opposed him or he didn't like anyone, he found a way to "eliminate" them. He was starting to become a threat not only to himself, but to his neighboring countries. Back in the early 1990's, he was a threat to Kuwait and we helped quell that conflict, but because the American public did not want the troops or the president to go any further, they held back for one reason or the other. The War in Iraq has sparked an abundance of criticism since its start in March of 2003. Now, four year later, the criticism has only intensified. The fact of the matter is that upon invasion of Iraq four years ago, the reasons were justifiable based on the evidence at hand. Our American troops, some 3,386 of our armed service members have given their lives for a cause that they felt was just, according to an Associated Press count that was conducted on Friday, May 11, 2007 (Associated Press, 2007). The devastating number is a cruel reminder as to how dangerous a war can be in general, but even more so when guerrilla warfare is present. In general, the majority of surveys conducted nationwide, showed that the public feel that the war has gone on a much greater period of time than anticipated, and now want the American troops to come home. The question at hand is how to withdraw the troops, safely, without leaving the country of Iraq with devastating effects. Officials may speculate a mongst themselves and debate the matter in full intensity, but no answer has ever been reached. As the months go on, more and more evidence is apparent to the general public as to why we have staked our stay in Iraq so long.
Monday, November 11, 2019
A group of industrialized nations including Australia, Austria, Canada, France, Germany, Italy, Japan, the I-JK, and the United States are called developed country. Kofi Annan, former Secretary General of the United Nations, defined a developed country as follows: Ã¢â¬Å"A developed country is one that allows all its citizens to enjoy a free and healthy life in a safe environment. Ã¢â¬Å"Developing countryÃ¢â¬â¢ is a term generally used to describe a nation with a low level of material well-being. Countries with more advanced conomies than other developing nations, but which have not yet fully demonstrated the signs of a developed country, are categorized as developing country. Developing countries are in general countries which have not achieved a significant degree of industrialization relative to their populations, and which have, in most cases a medium to low standard of living. There is a strong correlation between low income and high population growth. A developing country can be a result of many characteristics: resources, historical background, population, economic structure and ystem. They are basically under developed country that reflects a failure to gain levels ot living throughout most ot their population. Yet there nas been a signitlcant improvement by these countries general level of living as growth. Ã¢â¬Å"Under-developed countryÃ¢â¬â¢ is a term generally used to describe a nation with lack of access to Job opportunities, health care, drinkable water, food, education and housing. Underdevelopment takes place when resources are not used to their fullsocio-economic potential, with the result that local or egional development is slower in most cases than it should be. Furthermore, it results from the complex interplay of internal and external factors that allow less developed countries only a lop-sided development progression. Underdeveloped nations are characterized by a wide disparity between their rich and poor populations, and an unhealthy balance of trade STATISTICS It is considered that the countries with more than $735 per capita income per year is termed as developed country. In 2002 PCI was $480. So, Technically India is a Developing country not a Developed Country.
Saturday, November 9, 2019
ASTRONOMY Ã¢â¬â HISTORY AND REVOLUTION Free Online Research Papers In early times, astronomy only comprised the observation and predictions of the motions of objects visible to the naked eye. In some locations, such as Stonehenge, early cultures assembled massive artifacts that likely had some astronomical purpose. In addition to their ceremonial uses, these observatories could be employed to determine the seasons, an important factor in knowing when to plant crops, as well as in understanding the length of the year. Before tools such as the telescope were invented early study of the stars had to be conducted from the only vantage points available, namely tall buildings and high ground using the bare eye. As civilizations developed, most notably in Mesopotamia, Greece, Egypt, Persia, Maya, India, China, Nubia and the Islamic world, astronomical observatories were assembled, and ideas on the nature of the universe began to be explored. Most of early astronomy actually consisted of mapping the positions of the stars and planets, a science now referred to as astrometry. From these observations, early ideas about the motions of the planets were formed, and the nature of the Sun, Moon and the Earth in the universe were explored philosophically. The Earth was believed to be the center of the universe with the Sun, the Moon and the stars rotating around it. This is known as the geocentric model of the universe. A few notable astronomical discoveries were made prior to the application of the telescope. For example, the obliquity of the ecliptic was estimated as early as 1000 BC by the Chinese. The Chaldeans discovered that lunar eclipses recurred in a repeating cycle known as a saros.In the 2nd century BC, the size and distance of the Moon were estimated by Hipparchus. During the Middle Ages, observational astronomy was mostly stagnant in medieval Europe, at least until the 13th century. However, observational astronomy flourished in the Islamic world and other parts of the world. Some of the prominent Arab astronomers who made significant contributions to the science were Al-Battani and Thebit. Astronomers during that time introduced many Arabic names that are now used for individual stars.It is also believed that the ruins at Great Zimbabwe and Timbuktu may have housed an astronomy observatory. Europeans had previously believed that there had been no astronomical observation in pre-colonial Middle Ages sub-Saharan Africa but modern discoveries show otherwise. During the Renaissance, Nicolaus Copernicus proposed a heliocentric model of the solar system. His work was defended, expanded upon, and corrected by Galileo Galilei and Johannes Kepler. Galileo innovated by using telescopes to enhance his observations. Kepler was the first to devise a system that described correctly the details of the motion of the planets with the Sun at the center. However, Kepler did not succeed in formulating a theory behind the laws he wrote down. It was left to Newtons invention of celestial dynamics and his law of gravitation to finally explain the motions of the planets. Newton also developed the reflecting telescope. Further discoveries paralleled the improvements in the size and quality of the telescope. More extensive star catalogues were produced by Lacaille. The astronomer William Herschel made a detailed catalog of nebulosity and clusters, and in 1781 discovered the planet Uranus, the first new planet found. The distance to a star was first announced in 1838 when the parallax of 61 Cygni was measured by Friedrich Bessel. During the nineteenth century, attention to the three body problem by Euler, Clairaut, and DAlembert led to more accurate predictions about the motions of the Moon and planets. This work was further refined by Lagrange and Laplace, allowing the masses of the planets and moons to be estimated from their perturbations. Significant advances in astronomy came about with the introduction of new technology, including the spectroscope and photography. Fraunhofer discovered about 600 bands in the spectrum of the Sun in 1814-15, which, in 1859, Kirchhoff ascribed to the presence of different elements. Stars were proven to be similar to the Earths own Sun, but with a wide range of temperatures, masses, and sizes. The existence of the Earths galaxy, the Milky Way, as a separate group of stars, was only proved in the 20th century, along with the existence of external galaxies, and soon after, the expansion of the universe, seen in the recession of most galaxies from us. Modern astronomy has also discovered many exotic objects such as quasars, pulsars, blazars, and radio galaxies, and has used these observations to develop physical theories which describe some of these objects in terms of equally exotic objects such as black holes and neutron stars. Physical cosmology made huge advances during the 20th century, with the model of the Big Bang heavily supported by the evidence provided by astronomy and physics, such as the cosmic microwave background radiation, Hubbles law, and cosmological abundances of elements Research Papers on ASTRONOMY - HISTORY AND REVOLUTIONThree Concepts of PsychodynamicThe Rise and Fall of Napoleon BonaparteAmerican Central Banking and OilDistance Learning Survival GuideGlobal Distributive Justice is UtopianGenetic EngineeringDeontological Teleological TheoriesBooker T. Washington, W.E.B. Du Bois, Ida B. Wells-BarnettDefinition of Export QuotasCombating Human Trafficking
Wednesday, November 6, 2019
Every Other Every Other Every Other By Maeve Maddox Clarity of expression is the writerÃ¢â¬â¢s goal, but what is clear to the writer may not always be clear to the reader. Ambiguity is the enemy of clarity. ambiguity (noun): the capability of being understood in two or more ways. ambiguous (adjective): admitting more than one possible interpretation. nuance (noun): a subtle or slight variation or difference in meaning. Ambiguity is not always a bad thing in writing. In literature, for example, ambiguity and nuance contribute to the pleasure of the reader who enjoys an intellectual challenge. In a science text or instruction manual, on the other hand, ambiguity contributes to confusion and error. ESL learners, especially, have difficulty with expressions that can be interpreted in more than one way. Even native speakers are sometimes left wondering about the meaning of a common expression. Ã¢â¬Å"Every otherÃ¢â¬ is one of these expressions. It can mean Ã¢â¬Å"each of several,Ã¢â¬ as in Ã¢â¬Å"The homeless have the same rights as every other citizenÃ¢â¬ (i.e., all other citizens). Or it can mean Ã¢â¬Å"every second one,Ã¢â¬ as in Ã¢â¬Å"Open Mike Every Other SaturdayÃ¢â¬ (i.e., alternating Saturdays). Most native speakers would have no difficulty interpreting the following uses of Ã¢â¬Å"every otherÃ¢â¬ : Your child will muddle through [a cold] like every other child.Ã The childÃ¢â¬â¢s father has visitation rights every other weekend. Why is every other politician trying to target Narenda Modi? Every particle of matter in the universe attracts every other particle. Even a native speaker, however, might have to think about the following: Every teacher in the group was asked to rate every other teacher for general teaching ability and skill in discipline. Employees will empty large trash bins on Fridays and small wastebaskets every other day. The writerÃ¢â¬â¢s intended audience dictates usage. If the writerÃ¢â¬â¢s audience can be expected to include readers of widely differing English comprehension, the use of even such a familiar idiom as Ã¢â¬Å"every otherÃ¢â¬ must be scrutinized. Here are suggested revisions of the examples given above: Your child will muddle through [a cold] like all other children.Ã The childÃ¢â¬â¢s father has visitation rights on alternating weekends. Why are other politicians trying to target Narenda Modi? All particles of matter in the universe attract one another. Every teacher in the group was asked to rate each of the other teachers for general teaching ability and skill in discipline. Employees will empty large trash bins on Fridays and small wastebaskets on alternating days. Want to improve your English in five minutes a day? Get a subscription and start receiving our writing tips and exercises daily! Keep learning! Browse the Expressions category, check our popular posts, or choose a related post below:When to Capitalize Animal and Plant NamesIn Search of a 4-Dot EllipsisList of 50 Compliments and Nice Things to Say!
Monday, November 4, 2019
Cancer at the molecular level - Essay Example (Normal cell cycle) (Genetic mutation- causes alteration in genes) (Alberts, 2007) Cancer is a genetic phenomenon that onsets as a result of trigger in the signal transduction of normal cell cycle, causing alteration in the cellular pathway for uncontrolled proliferation figuring malignant tumors. Cancer cells are not confined to one location and they turn invasive, spread to the nearby tissues initially and gradually their seedlings are carried to different parts/ organs of the body via lymph or blood causing invasion of the cancer to other tissues and organs. This stage is called metastasis. On the contrary, some cancer cells do not display uncontrolled growth, they are non-invasive and do not spread, such stage of cancer only forms benign tumors (Alberts, 2007). Cancer Proliferation Cancer is initiated in the cell, the basic unit of any living entity. Under normal conditions the cell follow the regular cell cycle but any chemical, physical or biological agent may trigger the conve rsion of proto-oncogene to oncogene, the active form of cancer causing gene which is responsible for the altered metabolism of the cell. The genetic basis of cancer has been revealed through numerous animal models. The human Genome Project aids in improving preclusion, analysis and management of cancer with better efficacy (Luo, 2008). Luo et al (2008) have identified essential genes in 12 cancer cell lines, they were exploited to find the presumed and established oncogenes such as KRAS, EGFR, MYC, MYB, BCR-ABL, CDK4 and CRKL that are vital for cancer cell proliferation and are found to be altered in the human cancers. Their findings postulate that tumoricidal agents trigger the expression of four genes PTPN1, NF1, SMARCB1, and SMARCE1. Moreover, five regulators are also activated in response to FAS activation, FAS, FADD, CASP8, ARID1A and CBX1. The information is beneficial for pursuing future cancer studies as well as for therapeutics. A comparative study between normal stem cells and cancer stem cells states that signal transduction namely Bmi1 and Wnt are shared by the normal as well as cancer stem cells for cellular proliferation. Perception and thorough understanding for cancer stem cells will certainly aid in recognition of the drug targets and cancer therapeutics (Lobo, 2007). Basis of cancer Any mutation may result in abnormal proliferation. However, mutations are generally insignificant and mutant cells are eradicated but accretion of mutation may occur in dividing cells resulting in cancer. Cancer causing mutation directly influence the cellular machinery including the genetic damage as well as signaling pathways and hence the entire cell division process is affected. As stem cells are pluripotent, long-lived as compared to their short lived descendant cells, they are vulnerable to the genotoxic elements causing oncogenic mutations (Pardal et al, 2003). Observations reveals that cancer tends to relapse after treatment. The genetic basis that has bee n postulated encompass the involvement of cancer stem cells. Research disclose that cancer stem cells play a pivotal role in cancer relapse as stem cells are not targeted by the conventional drugs and as these cancer stem cells are pluripotent they have potential to divide thereby generating tumor again. Much understanding of the cancer could be procured
Saturday, November 2, 2019
Compare and contrast how foreign antigens are recognised by the innate and the adaptive immunity - Essay Example The innate immunity system is composed of four main components each of which contains a large number of different types of cells. These four main components are: Phagocytes, Interferon, Compliment system and Natural Killer cells. The innate immunity is non-specific and targets every foreign antigen that it is exposed to. Also the response to these foreign antigens is very rapid. Mast cells of the innate immunity system release histamine which causes inflammation and dilation of the capillaries to allow the needed action. Adaptive immunity also aims to protect the body against infectious particles however the mode of action and the components involved are quite different from that of innate immunity. The adaptive immunity is very specific recognizing and acting against a specific antigen. The response against the antigen is quite slow when compared with the innate immunity and there is a time delay between the onset of antigens and the action taken by the adaptive immunity. The action however is targeted and once it is taken, it leads to rapid removal of antigens from the body. In both the innate and the adaptive immunity, the response to the foreign antigens takes place in two phases: the activation phase and the effector phase. The activation phase is very similar in both of these systems. During the activation phase, antigens are presented by the Major histocompatibility complexes to the T-cells. In the innate immunity the antigen is presented to the cytotoxic T cell which after recognizing the signal proliferates and produces perforin in order to lyse the infected cell. On the other hand, in the adaptive immunity, the antigens are presented to T-helper cells. The helper cells release cytokines which allow it to proliferate into clones. These clones then act on individual B-cells which cause them to proliferate and differentiate into either plasma cells or memory cells. Like the innate immunity, the adaptive